Tags Posts tagged with "thc"

thc

0 1719

The combination of CBD and THCV (tetrahydrocannabivarin) looks to have significant therapeutic potential in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Research concerning THCV and Type 2 diabetes has been making scientific news for at least three years. THCV is what chemists call the propyl variant of THC. While THCV is psychoactive, it’s a shorter, more intense high than THC. THC is a few hours at the amusement park; THCV is an hour on the roller coaster.

Appetite suppression is another side effect of THCV. The science concerning THCV and weight loss is not well-developed. No one knows how long the effect lasts and how much weight loss can be expected. Even with that caveat, the possibilities are intriguing. The weight-loss industry is worth $60 billion a year, the same as the cannabis industry. What happens when those two industries intersect? Venture capital apoplexy. World domination.

It turns out that there aren’t any high THCV/CBD strains out there. Even THCV by itself is hard to find in any significant concentration. The strains Jack the Ripper and Durban Poison have approximately 2% THCV. Doug’s Varin has closer to 7% THCV, but it has a reputation as a scrawny plant. The strain Willie Nelson has some THCV, but none of the people in my circles know anything about it.

There is a micro-grow (10 plants) in Sonoma County with a strain code named Elizabeth Taylor with 6.7% THCV and 12% THC. It’s a robust plant with the highest terpene (essential oils that give cannabis strains their unique aromatics) profile measured around here.

The big-market potential from secondary cannabinoids, thin science and the lack of THCV/CBD rich genetics is (IMO) the perfect opportunity for any forward-thinking entrepreneur. Whether it’s THCV or something else (CBDV?), our cannabis future, both economic and cultural, will be shaped, not by what we know, but by what we will be able to learn.

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CBD is well-known for its health benefits, especially in treating rare seizure disorders. There are other reasons people try CBD products, also. A neurologist and psychopharmacology researcher, Dr. Ethan Russo, notes in a study that the therapeutic effects of CBD are broad, including: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, antioxidant, anti-psychotic, anti-anxiety, anti-convulsant and cytotoxic in certain cancer cells. Typically, CBD products are primarily made from the concentrated extract of the flowers, leaves and possibly stalks of marijuana or hemp. Most CBD products are either oil-based tinctures or capsules that are consumed orally, or topicals applied to the skin. However, there is a growing variety of other products containing CBD, including those for pets.

To find out if CBD would show on a urine drug test, we consulted employment drug testing expert Barry Sample, who is the director of science and technology for Quest Diagnostics. Sample stated, “If the product contains only CBD and has had the THC removed, then an individual being tested would not be expected to test positive for marijuana or marijuana metabolite.” We contacted cannabis health and science researcher, Paul Armentano. Armentano stated, “Not unless those products also contain quantities of THC. Drug tests screen for either THC or the carboxy-THC metabolite, not for CBD.”

Both experts agree; as long as there is no THC in the CBD products, then a urine test would not test positive for THC. There may be minute amounts of THC in CBD products. An aspect in cannabinoid compounds that aids efficacy is the entourage effect. Coined by venerable Israeli cannabis researcher Raphael Mechoulam in 1999, the entourage effect is the belief that the compounds in marijuana work better together than if the compounds are isolated. CBD products, in addition to the CBD cannabinoid, may contain additional cannabis compounds, including THC, to purportedly increase the effectiveness of the product.

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At the age of 19, Amy Black, the former Morgan Academy student’s, life was thrown into disarray when she was diagnosed with sarcoidosis. The condition affects one in every 10,000 people in the United Kingdom. It causes small patches of swollen and red tissue, called granulomas, to develop in the organs of the body. It usually affects the skin and the lungs. There is no cure for the disorder. Amy, now 23, is currently taking gabapentin, co-codamol, and amitriptyline but said the drugs have terrible side effects. She is currently taking cannabis oil in her efforts to live a “normal life.” Now she has spoken out in support of cannabis oil and called for the drug to be made available free on the NHS.

Amy said, “I feel this is the first step to getting my life back to the way it was before diagnosis and I was told I’d never feel that way ever again by doctors. My family has seen an incredible transformation in me and I believe there is a strong case for this to be medically regulated. From being a fit and healthy teenager I became too unwell to get out of bed was a major shock. Since I’ve started taking these capsules, I feel my life is no longer dictated by sarcoidosis.” Those supporting the oil believe the ingredient CBD offers considerable health benefits. Cannabis oil is very low in the psychoactive substance THC, which means that the use of the oil does not create a “high.” Therefore, it does not fall within the drug classification categories for illegal substances.

Amy has been using the oil capsules since December and said she has seen a reduction in her sickness, migraines, and tremors. When she first became ill, she thought she had experienced an allergic reaction to a tattoo when a rash appeared on her skin. Amy was shocked when doctors diagnosed her with sarcoidosis. The condition causes painful symptoms, including: temporary blindness, crippling migraines, and tremors. Amy stated, “I’ve had days where I can’t get out of bed from the pain. I lose sight in my left eye, I get crippling migraines, wake up in the night with horrible nerve pain, have regular tremors, difficulty breathing, and get raised rashes on my skin. I’ve been in and out of hospital for the past four years and been close to heart attacks and seizures, with my body attacking itself. I’m taking tablets daily but they have horrible side effects.”

The beauty therapy student was researching alternative medicines to treat her illness and was recommended cannabis oil. She said the capsules make her feel “normal again.” She continued, “I discussed the option of herbal alternatives with the doctors who were against me using it. But having spoken with others I was recommended CBD capsules. I was told people facing long-term diseases were able to stop using other medicines. I’ve been taking the capsules since December and I’ve had no pains, no migraines, no tremors, no sickness, nothing.”

CBD oil is the concentrated, distilled form of the plant most commonly known as marijuana. Brands marketed for medical use typically contain CBD, which proponents claim can help people experiencing a wide range of conditions, including: PTSD, arthritis, alcoholism, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, and schizophrenia. CBD does not make people feel “stoned.” It is now possible to buy CBD oils and ready-to-use vaporizer pens from a growing number of websites in the UK. Any product containing CBD alone is not illegal. THC, another cannabinoid, has a psychoactive effect and is the mind-altering substance found in cannabis. If sellers offer products which contain THC they could find themselves in trouble.

Researchers first looked at the anti-cancer properties of cannabinoids back in the 1970s, and hundreds of scientific studies have been published since then. Some research supports the claim that cannabinoids can reduce chemotherapy-related pain, nausea, and vomiting in patients. Other studies have shown cannabinoids can uniquely target and kill cancer cells. However, investigation into the health benefits of cannabinoids is still in the early stages. Hundreds of researchers around the world are investigating their potential in treating cancer and other diseases brought together under the blanket organisation, The International Cannabinoid Research Society. A Scottish Government spokesman said, “While the treatment and prevention of drug problems are devolved to the Scottish Government, policy on the use of controlled drugs is currently reserved to the UK Government. All medicinal products must be fully tested and researched before they can be licensed for use in the UK, and the licensing, safety and efficacy of medicines is also currently reserved to the UK Government.”

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It seems people are searching for peace, tranquility, and a sense of overall well being these days. There is so much anxiety in combination with the instability of the the economy, government, the weather, and life in general is overwhelming for many of us. The pursuit is always to find that natural high, whether from yoga, meditation, running, or anything that gets the blood moving and oxygen flowing.

Getting high on life can be a wonderful experience. For many, the high is achieved through the use of psychoactive substances. Ever since the 2016 election, there is a lot of hype going around the states that have passed the use of cannabis, since the legalization of it is becoming more broad. Among the cannabinoids in marijuana, the main psychoactive compound, THC, often transcends the other one. Cannabidiol can provide a natural anti-anxiety, antipsychotic, and anti-epileptic effect.

Cannabidiol, or CBD, is used by itself, with no high. However, when combined with THC, the relaxing effect is claimed to fight off any feelings of paranoia that can sometimes be felt under the influence. There are a few digital gateways that “explore the evolving world of cannabis products and services” with a target on marijuana culture. Many others are cropping up for consumers seeking more in-depth information pertaining to the rapidly growing recreational and medical marijuana industry.

Smoking is the most popular way to ingest the substance and offers the fastest reaction. Vaporizing (vaping) has become more popular since a vaporizer creates vapor, there is a reduced risk of choking on the drug upon inhaling. It offers a smoother delivery. The most attractive and pleasing for many are the edibles, or “Medibles.” The creative delivery of cannabis-infused food and beverages claim to provide a longer lasting effect.

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If legislators in Iowa don’t expand the current medical cannabis program, which basically allows residents to use CBD oil for the treatment of intractable epilepsy, there will be negative effects on MMJ patients. Without legislative action, the program expires on July 1 and Iowa’s 222 medical cannabis patients will be in jeopardized. The program already has its issues because it does not provide an avenue for Iowans to obtain CBD oil, or any medical cannabis products, in Iowa. Patients are required to travel to states where it is produced. Unfortunately, not all states permit the sale of medical marijuana products to people who aren’t residents.

That is why people like Cassie Helland are getting worried. Her 10-year-old son’s seizures stopped after two weeks of using CBD oil and never came back. Such cases like Caleb Helland’s epilepsy are not isolated. Ms. Helland and her fellow advocates have spent the past two years pressing legislators to expand the program. An editorial published in the Sioux City Journal said “lack of action returns the state, and those who suffer from epilepsy and other illnesses for which medical marijuana might help, to square one.” While the Iowa legislature took a crucial first step in 2014 and passed a limited medical marijuana program, the bill never addressed production and distribution of MMJ the state. In other words, Iowans with medical cannabis cards can possess CBD oil legally for epilepsy therapy, however, it is not legal to produce or distribute it. Cassie told the Quad-City Times that many families have to use their MMJ card to get CBD oil from states like Colorado.

Several states have medical cannabis reciprocity, including: Michigan, Pennsylvania, Nevada, Arizona, Maine, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island. Supporters for expansion say they would also like more forms of medical marijuana to be legalized for more conditions, such as PTSD and cancer. Sally Gaer of West Des Moines, co-founder of the advocacy group Iowans 4 Medical Cannabis, whose daughter has a rare form of epilepsy stated, “We are hopeful for a more comprehensive program that will help more Iowans. We have kids with epilepsy that need THCA (another compound that occurs naturally in the marijuana plant) because the oil doesn’t work for them, so they need a different component of the plant. So we need to help those kids.”

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Cannabis biotech bellwether, GW Pharmaceuticals (GWPH) announced positive top-line results from an exploratory Phase 2 placebo-controlled clinical study of a proprietary combination of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) in 21 patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).

Concurrent with this announcement, the company also reported first quarter financial results for the period that ended on December 31st. GW Pharma continues to be a leader within the cannabis biotech sector and today’s announcement further solidify its position at the top.

About the Study

GBM is a particularly aggressive brain tumor, with a poor prognosis. GW Pharma was granted the Orphan Drug Designation from the FDA and the EMA for THC:CBD in the treatment of glioma.

The study showed that patients with documented recurrent GBM treated with THC:CBD had an 83% one-year survival rate compared with 53% for patients taking the placebo. The median survival for the THC:CBD group was greater than 550 days compared with 369 days in the placebo group.

The treatment was generally well tolerated with the patients in both groups. The study reported that emergent adverse events caused two patients in each group to discontinue the study. The most common adverse events reported were vomiting and dizziness.

From the Principal Investigator and the CEO

Professor Susan Short, PhD, Professor of Clinical Oncology and Neuro-Oncology at Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology at St James’s University Hospital and principal investigator of the study said, “The findings from this well-designed controlled study suggest that the addition of a combination of THC and CBD to patients on dose-intensive temozolomide produced relevant improvements in survival compared with placebo and this is a good signal of potential efficacy. Moreover, the cannabinoid medicine was generally well tolerated. These promising results are of particular interest as the pharmacology of the THC:CBD product appears to be distinct from existing oncology medications and may offer a unique and possibly synergistic option for future glioma treatment.”

2017 Outlook is Bright

Following the company’s earnings report, GW Pharma CEO Justin Gover said, “As we look forward to 2017, our primary focus is on completing the Epidiolex NDA, which we expect to submit to the FDA in the middle of this year. With three positive Phase 3 trials delivered in 2016, we remain confident in the prospects for Epidiolex’s approval and are accelerating our preparations for a highly successful launch. Beyond Epidiolex, the value of GW’s cannabinoid platform is further illustrated by promising new clinical data in the field of oncology and we continue to advance a number of additional clinical programs that will yield data this year.”

Trades on FDA Results, Not Earnings

Although GW Pharma reported a $19.3 million net loss on $2.5 million in revenue during the quarter, we remain very favorable on the company as biotech stocks tend to trade on FDA results, not earnings.

As of December 31st, the company reported to have $444.6 million in cash and cash equivalents. This should provide the company enough capital to execute on 2017 corporate initiatives.

We are favorable on this update and continue to view GWPH as one of the top investment opportunities for cannabis investors due to its deep pipeline of products that are in advanced stages of FDA testing. The company’s pipeline should create catalysts for years to come and this is a stock every investor should watch.

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Research from Western University concludes that a chemical found in cannabis can be helpful in schizophrenia therapy. Justine Renard, postdoctoral fellow in Western’s Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology at the Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry who led the study, identifies the neural pathway whereby the marijuana-derived phytochemical cannabidiol (CBD) produces antipsychotic effects that are discovered to ease symptoms of schizophrenia-related psychosis. The study’s authors stated, “These findings have critical implications not only for understanding how specific phytochemical components of marijuana may differentially impact neuropsychiatric phenomena, but demonstrate a potential mechanism for the therapeutic effects of marijuana derivatives in the treatment of dopamine-related, psychiatric disorders.”

Cannabis contains two main chemicals responsible for producing its psychoactive properties: the more well-known tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. While THC serves to produce the drug’s psychoactive properties, CBD has been discovered to have an opposing, antipsychotic effect that makes it potentially ideal for use in treatment of psychoses such as schizophrenia. The link between marijuana and schizophrenia has been known for some time, as studies have shown that heavy cannabis use increases the risk of developing schizophrenia and that schizophrenics who use marijuana are more liable to have worsening symptoms and further progression of the illness. However, recent evidence including the work done at the Western University lab points to THC as the culprit rather than CBD.

Co-author Steven Laviolette stated, “CBD is acting in a way that is the exact opposite to what THC is doing. Within the same plant, you’ve got two different chemicals that are producing opposite effects in terms of psychiatric effects, molecular signaling and effects on the dopamine pathway.” Researchers injected rats with CBD to study its behavioural, chemical, and neuropathic effects and discovered that it serves to cut back dopamine sensitization, a response that has been linked to schizophrenia-related psychoses. This helps to explain exactly how CBD affects brain functioning. Laviolette stated, “One of the biggest problems in treating schizophrenia is that there hasn’t been an effective new treatment on the market in a very long time. The drugs on the market today have limited efficacy and horrible side-effects. There is a desperate need for safer alternative medications.”

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Reports of hemp-based CBD medicine’s death have been highly exaggerated. That’s the word from several legal experts who say, despite a moment of industry-wide panic about the DEA’s filing of a memo with the federal register establishing a “final rule” on the internal classification of “marijuana extracts” the law regarding CBD and hemp has not changed. A memo from Folium Legal Counsel reflects this widespread interpretation of the law and the lack of negative impacts on the industry since the filing took effect.

From the Folium memo:
Previously, Marijuana Extracts were classified under the code number for “Marijuana. Under the new rule, extracts are now classified separately. The DEA uses these codes to track quantities of controlled substances imported to and exported from the United States. This new rule affects only DEA-registered entities who previously were required to track such materials. As the document states, “The only direct effect to registrants who handle marijuana extracts will be the requirement to add the new drug code to their registrations.”

The DEA has claimed that the reclassification was meant to comply with international drug control treaties, and to better monitor the ways in which scientists are studying extracts versus cannabis flowers. Their plan is to institute new code numbers for marijuana extracts, which the DEA defines as “an extract containing one or more cannabinoids that has been derived from any plant of the genus Cannabis, other than the separated resin (whether crude or purified) obtained from the plant.’’

Joshua Kappel is a partner at Vicente & Sederberg, which Rolling Stone called “the country’s first powerhouse marijuana law firm.” He said the DEA’s explanation is reasonable and comports with the nature of the agency’s filing. Kappel stated, “I do believe the DEA when they say this an administrative move towards clarity. There is no drug that is illegal now that was legal before. The DEA has to work with Congress to reschedule a substance, the ruling [Hemp Industries Assoc. LLC v. DEA] still stands.” The Rohrabacher-Farr amendment, which became law in 2014, prevents the Justice Department from interfering with state laws and regulations on medical cannabis. The amendment further covers the 16 states that allow CBD use only. Additionally, industrial hemp and its derivatives are currently legal in all 50 states.

From the Folium memo:
Regarding the legal status of CBD derived from industrial hemp: The 2014 US Farm Bill was an act of congress signed by the president and that is the highest law of the land. The DEA cannot make law and try to redefine a law passed by the US Congress which defined industrial hemp in section 7606 as “Any cannabis sativa L that produces naturally less than .3% THC on a dry weight basis.”

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Lexaria and NeutriSci Announce Successful Cannabinoid Tablet Development and Positive Results from Initial Human Observational Trials

Lexaria Bioscience Corp. (LXRP) (CSE:LXX) (the “Company” or “Lexaria”) and NeutriSci International Inc. (the “Company” or “NeutriSci”) (TSX-V: NU, Frankfurt-1N9) are pleased to announce the successful development and initial trial of the industry’s first zero-sugar cannabinoid / pterostilbene edible tablet utilizing both Neutrisci’s and Lexaria’s proprietary and patented technologies.

Neutrisci’s proprietary pterostilbene tablet formula was used to produce the world’s first pterostilbene / cannabidiol (CBD) rapid melt edible product offering the benefits of Lexaria’s patented CBD conjugation technology. The market-ready tablet offers improvements in taste, rapidity of onset, and strength of effect due to greater bioavailability, as had been originally hypothesized.

After trial batch formulation and manufacturing was completed, observational human tests supported that the user will experience the effects faster and last longer while utilizing smaller amounts of cannabinoid than competing products. The above noted benefits offer manufacturing efficiencies over competing products, thus potentially increasing comparative profitability.

NeutriSci and Lexaria confirm the companies expect to officially bind the JV agreement to market and commercialize a line of edible products using CBD derived from full spectrum hemp oil, which is federally legal in the United States, to be followed by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) versions through distribution programs with both existing and planned new strategic partners. With successful first-stage formulation and human evaluation completed, the companies expect to conclude a working JV structure as soon as possible to financially capitalize on this unique opportunity.

“This joint venture is a demonstration of the rapid innovation occurring in the cannabis industry,” commented Chris Bunka, CEO of Lexaria Bioscience. “We are excited to work with NeutriSci; to combine both technology and form factor to develop healthy cannabinoid products to be sold within NeutriSci’s international distribution network.”

“We are very pleased with the results of this product formulation and observational trial, as the initial results have be invaluable in helping NeutriSci open dialogue with several of the world’s largest CBD manufactures and distributors,” commented Glen Rehman, President of NeutriSci International. “The idea to use our sublingual tablet and form factor to create a new line of zero-sugar and dose-controlled cannabinoid edible products will become a reality.”

Following the recent approvals for recreational use in certain US states, industry researchers have reported that the legal cannabis market could exceed $20 Billion by 2020.

About Lexaria

Lexaria Bioscience Corp. is a food biosciences company with a proprietary technology for improved delivery of bioactive compounds. The Company’s lipophilic enhancement technology has been shown to enhance the bioavailability of orally ingested cannabinoids, while also masking taste. This technology promotes healthy ingestion methods, lower overall dosing, and higher effectiveness in active molecule delivery. The Company’s technology is patent-protected for cannabidiol (CBD) and all other non-psychoactive cannabinoids, and patent-pending for Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), other psychoactive cannabinoids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), nicotine, and other molecules.

www.lexariabioscience.com

About NeutriSci International Inc.

NeutriSci specializes in the innovation, production, and formulation of nutraceutical products. Established in 2009, NeutriSci has focused on the development of several breakthrough nutraceutical products with an initial focus on areas such as heart and cholesterol health, sleep deprivation therapies, immune defense, as well as men’s prostate and sexual health. NeutriSci continues to build strong relationships and distribution channels for its BluScience™ and NeuEnergy™ products with retailers throughout the United States. NeutriSci is focusing efforts in strengthening sustainable sales models with Convenience, Chain Drug, and Mass Market and Supermarket retailers.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT:

Lexaria Bioscience Corp.
Chris Bunka
Chairman & CEO
(250) 765-6424

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The DEA has been taken to court by the cannabis industry after a contentious new statute on the extracts of the plant. Denver’s Hoban Law Group (who is representing the Hemp Industries Association, Centuria Natural Foods and RMH Holdings LLC), filed a judicial review action on Friday against the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, pleading the agency overstepped its boundaries when enacting a rule establishing coding for cannabis derivatives such as cannabidiol (CBD) oil. Hoban lawyers allege that the action puts a thriving hemp and marijuana industry at risk and a wide variety of cannabis-based products currently on the market. Bob Hoban said, “We’re talking about jobs and the economy and agricultural (revival).”

Last month the DEA angered many advocates in the marijuana industry with the filing of a final statute notice establishing a Controlled Substances Code Number for “marijuana extract,” and subsequently maintaining cannabis, hemp, and their derivatives as Schedule I substances. DEA agents said the code number would help in the tracking of materials for research and would aid in complying with treaty provisions. However, compliance attorney Hoban expressed worry at the time that the language could result in federal agencies viewing products produced from cannabis as against the law.

Hoban’s petition pursues an analysis of the final rule on the basis that the action was not consistent with the law, including the U.S. Controlled Substances Act and the Agricultural Act of 2014, or the Farm Bill, and effectively amounts to a scheduling action. Hoban said a scheduling action would need congressional approval. According to the lawsuit, “Additionally, the final rule creates this new drug code, indicative of being a controlled substance, for substances which are in fact not controlled pursuant to the (Controlled Substances Act),” Hoban attorneys wrote in the lawsuit. “Specifically, the final rule dictates that the mere presence of ‘cannabinoids,’ which are not controlled substances, is the determinative factor of whether a compound is a ‘marijuana extract. Further, the final rule over broadly defines ‘marihuana extract,’ without reflecting that certain portions and varieties of the genus Cannabis sativa L. are congressionally exempted from the CSA and/or are exempted from being treated as controlled substances altogether pursuant to the relevant laws, as enacted by Congress.”

Hoban said his firm plans to file a petition next week with the DEA, requesting the administration to revoke the definition. Hoban stated, “(The new rule) certainly has caused quite a chill in the marketplace over the last three or four weeks. The number of calls we get on a daily basis, you couldn’t even quantify. That is indicative to me of an environment where people are scared, they’re nervous.” Hoban said he does not expect a spike in enforcement. However, he encouraged producers to maintain strict processes and to conduct an audit of their businesses to make sure that they are in compliance with federal and state regulations. Russ Baer, DEA spokesman, stated he could not comment on a petition that he hasn’t seen yet.

Baer addressed the agency’s positions on CBDs marijuana extracts in an email earlier friday: CBD oil and other extracts derived from marijuana will continue to be Schedule I controlled substances, unless and until they are determined to have a current accepted medical use. We need conclusive scientific evidence to make these determinations and the lack of evidence regarding the efficacy of cannabis is impressive. To handle any controlled substance, an entity or individual must be a DEA registrant to be authorized to conduct research with the particular controlled substance.

Under U.S. law (the CSA), the definition of cannabis includes all parts of the marijuana plant that are the source of cannabinoids. The CSA definition of marijuana also includes “every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation” of such parts of the cannabis plant – and CBD produced from the cannabis plant clearly falls within this category. Thus, CBD, being a derivative of marijuana, is marijuana under U.S. law. Accordingly, because cannabis is a schedule I controlled substance under the CSA (as set forth in 21 U.S.C. § 812(c), Schedule I(c)(10)), CBD is a schedule I controlled substance under the CSA.

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